A Short History of Majapahit Kingdom
Eastern Javanese history
usually divided into three dynasties periods. The first
was the period when the kings of Kadiri ruled over Java
(10th - 1222 AD) they ware succeeded by the dynasty of
Singasari (1222 - 1293 AD), which in turn was replaced
by the kings of Majapahit (1293 - early 16th century).
Raden Wijaya was the son-in low of Kertanegara the last
king of Singasari who had been murdered by Jayakatwang
from Gelang-Gelang. Then Jayakatwang was defeated by Wijaya
Utilizing the Mongol armies, who came to Java to punish
Kertanegara. Finally by cunning tricks Wijaya defeated
the Mongols and drove then away. Then Wijaya ascended
the throne as the first king of Majapahit on 1293 AD.
In the Lands of Tarik he build a strong hold, and the
capital was named Majapahit also, after the bitter Maja
fruit, a sort of tree which grew in abundance in that
area. His formal name was Kertarajasa Jayawarddhana. Wijaya
died in 1309 AD.
His son, Jayanegara, whose mother was a Malayu princess,
succeeded him. His surgeon murdered Jayanegara on 1328
AD. His stepmother should succeed him, Rajapatni who retired
from court to be come a nun in Buddhist monastery, therefore
she appointed her daughter, Tribhuwana as a queen of Majapahit
to rule under her auspices.
The famous prime minister Gajah Mada assisted Tribhuwana
in her reign, and would afterwards serve King Hayam Wuruk
also. During Tribhuwana’s rule Majapahit grew to
be a great kingdom and famous on all the seas of the Archipelago
and a broad. Tribhuwana ruled until the death of her mother
in 1350 AD. Then her son Hayam Wuruk ascended the throne.
Majapahit’s Power reached its summit under the rule
of King Hayam Wuruk. Gajah Mada was again prime minister
until his death in 1365 AD. After Hayam Wuruk died in
1389 AD. The country was split up by fraternal conflics.
The crown princess Kusumawarddhani who had married a relative,
Prince Wikramawarddhana, had succeeded Hayam Wuruk. Hayam
Wuruk also had a son by his previous marriage that was
the crown princess Wirabhumi. He was jealous of his sister
and his brother in-law, so he claimed rights to the throne.
The tense relations between the two parties remained a
smoldering fire during some. It grew into a big blaze
at the beginning of the 15 th century when a fraternal
war called Paregreg was declared and lasted from 1403
to 1406 AD. At last Wikramawarddhana want war while Wirabhumi
who fled at night, was caught and decapitated. Then Wikramawarddhana,
who ruled to 1492 AD, reunited the country.
His daughter Suhita, who ruled from 1426 to 1447 AD, had
succeeded Wikramawarddhana. She was the second child of
Wikramawarddhana by a concubine who was the daughter of
Wirabhumi. Suhita was appointed a queen to gain peace.
At 1447 Ad. Suhita died and was succeeded by Kertawijaya,
a brother of her. He ruled until 1451 AD. After Kertawijaya
died, Bhre Pamotan become a king with formal name Rajasawarddhana
and ruled at Kahuripan. He died in 1453 AD. After that
during three years Majapahit grew internally weaker and
until 1456 AD, when Bhre Wengker came forward to hold
position as a leader. He was a son of Kertawijaya. He
died at 1466 AD and succeeded by Singhawikramawarddhana.
At 1468 AD suddenly Kertabhumi attacked and promoted himself
as king of Majapahit. Men while Singhawikramawarddhana
moved to Daha and continued his rule until his son Ranawijaya
succeeded him at 1474 AD. In 478 AD he conquered Kertabhumi
and brought Majapahit, which had been divided, into one
Kingdom. Ranawijaya ruled from 1474 AD to 1519 AD with
formal name Girindrawarddhana. Nevertheless, Majapahit
situation decayed already by many and long lasting family
conflicts and enhanced by the growing-up of the north-coastal
petty kingdoms in Java.