Biological Conditions

Ecosystem

According to levels and temperature differences of an area, formation of TN-BTS forest could be divided into 3 (there) zones. They are :

Sub Montane Zone (750-1.500 m als)

In this zonae as a whole classified to type of tropical rainy forest for low level land until the mountainous where has the highest variety and density. This formation concitutes the primary forests that can be found in the south area , of Semeru TN-BTS area, East Semeru (Burno) ,and West Semeru (Patok Picis ),and contitutes TN-BTS core zone.

Most of this forest consist of the big trees that have hundreds years old of age , so made a dominant layer . In this zonae this is a layer dominated from the family Fagaceae , Moraceae, Anarcadeaceae , Sterculiaceae , and Rubiaceae. Kinds of bottom trees liana are overwhelmed, these are consist of a variety of genus Calamus, Piper, Asplenium , and Begonia and family Anarcadiaceae , Araceae , Poaceae, and Zingiberaceae, Beside these potentials mentioned above in this zona constitutes the habitat the mani kinds of good Anggrek (orchids) that grows as the apiphite or terestrial. From the result list of last invetory known that there are 225 kinds of pure Orchid Galur that among them are the sacred species that must be paid special antention.

The kind of Cemara (casuarina jumhuhniana) in any places or block are the kinds of plant that dominate, so form a homogen ecosytem forest system (blok cemoro kadang, arcopodo). In Kaldera Tengger there are a special ecosystem, where the soil weight is the volcanic sendimentation with the main materials are, dirt, and sand or stones that are resulted of Mount Bromo acttivities that have experienced many year growth whit the main materials are dirt, and sand or stones that are resulted of mount Bromo activities that have experienced many years growth.

Sea sand Tengger grows vegetation that may survice to the montainous condition and the impact of sulphur gas comes out from inside the Mount Bromo.The kinds of plants area Cemara (Casuarina jumhuhniana), Mentig (vacinum Karingifalium), Kemlandingan Gunung (Albezzia lofanta) , Akasia (acacia decurens) and bottom plant such as Edelweise (anaphalis longifongila), Senduro (anaphalis javanica), (Imperata cylindrica, Pteris sp, Themeda sp) and Centella assatica).and are the soil orchid habitats. I.e. Habenaria Tosariensis.

Sub Alpin zone (2.400m asl and above)

In this zona grows many short trees and poor of species. The dominan kinds for this heigt is Mentinggi gunung (vacinium varingifolium), and Mountain cemara (casuarina jumhhuniana). In some places also can found Kemlandingan gunung (albezzia lofanta),and eEdelweis flower (anapalis longifolia).

In Mt.Semeru at more than 3,100m in heght over the sea surface, this area is the land of sand, stones, whithout any plants.

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