A Short History of Majapahit Kingdom

Eastern Javanese history usually devided into three dynasti periods. The first was the period when the kings of Kadiri ruled over Java (10th - 1222 AD) they ware succeeded by the dynasty of Singasari (1222 - 1293 AD), which in turn was replaced by the kings of Majapahit (1293 - early 16th century)

Raden Wijaya was the son-in low of Kertanegara the last king of Singasari who had been murdered by Jayakatwang from Gelang-Gelang. Then Jayakatwang was defeated by Wijaya Utlilizing the Mongol armies, who came to Java to punish Kertanegara. Finally by cunning tricks Wijaya defeated the Mongols and drove then away. Then Wijaya ascended the throne as the fiest king of Majapahit on 1293 AD. In the Lands of Trik he buil a strong hold, and the capital was named Majapahit also, after the bitter maja fruit, a sort of tree which grew in abundance in that area. His formal name was Kertarajasa Jayawarddhana. Wijaya died in 1309 AD.

He was succeeded by his son, Jayanegara, whose mother was a Malayu princess. Jayanegara was murdered by his surgeon on 1328 AD. He should be succeeded by his stepmother, Rajapatni who retered from court to be come a nun in Buddhist monastery, Therefore she appointed her doughther, Tribhuwana as a queen of Majapahit to rule under her auspices.

The fomous prime minister Gajah Mada assisted Tribhuwana in her reign, and would afterwards serve King Hayam Wuruk also. During Tribhuwana’s rule Majapahit grew to be a great kingdom and famous on all the seas of the Archipelago and a broad. Tribhuwana ruled until the death of her mother in 1350 AD. Then her son Hayam Wuruk ascended the throne.

Majapahit’s Power reached its summit under the rule of King Hayam Wuruk. Gajah Mada was again prime minister until his death in 1365 AD. After Hayam Wuruk died in 1389 AD. The country was split up by fraternal conflitets. Hayam Wuruk had been succeeded by the crown princess Kusumawarddhani, who had married a relative, Prince Wikramawarddhana. Hayam Wuruk also had a son by his previous marriage, that was the crown princess Wirabhumi. He was jealous of his sister and his brother in-law, so he claimed rights to the throne. The tense relations betwen the two parties remained a smoldering fire during some. It grew into a big blaze at the beginning of the 15 th century when a fraternal war called paregreg was declared and lasted from 1403 to 1406 AD. At last Wikramawarddhana want war while Wirabhumi who fled at night, was cought and decapitated . Then the country was reunited by Wikramawarddhana, who ruled to 1492 AD.

Wikramawarddhana, had been succeeded by his dougther Suhita, who ruled from 1426 to 1447 AD. She was the second child of Wikramawarddhana by a concubine who was the daughter of Wirabhumi. Suhita was oppointed a quen to gain peace. At 1447 Ad. Suhita died and was succeeded by kertawijaya, a brother of her. He ruler until 1451 AD. After Kertawijaya died, Bhre Pamotan become a king with formal name Rajasawarddhana and ruled at Kahuripan. He died in 1453 AD. After that during three years Majapahit grew internally weaker and until 1456 AD, when Bhre Wengker came forward to hold position as a leader. He was a son of Kertawijaya. He died at 1466 AD and succeded by Singhawikramawarddhana. At 1468 AD subdenly Kertabhumi attecked and promated himself as king of Majapahit. Men while Singhawikramawarddhana moved to Daha and continued his rule until he was succeeded by his son Ranawijaya at 1474 AD. In a478 AD he conquered Kertabhumi and brought Majapahit which had been divided into one Kingdom. Ranawijaya ruled from 1474 AD to 1519 AD with formal name Girindrawarddhana. Nevertheless, Majapahit situation decayed already by many and long lasting family conflicts and enhanced by the growung-up of the north-coastal petty kingdoms in Java.

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