East Java is a part of Republic of Indonesia has government which is based on No.5/1975 regulation stated of regional government principals.
Based on that regulation, this regional has autonomy. It means that East Java is law community unit which has territory and has the right, authority and obligatory to arrange and to care household itself in unitary state of Indonesia in accordance with prevailing regulation.
In connection with the matter and before explaining in detail, East Java can be explained generally as follows:
The territorial scope of East Java is 157.992 Km2 which consist of:

  • Territory
  • Regional Area : 47.042,17 Km2
    Consist of:
    - Rice Cultivation : 12.483,66 Km2
    - Dried land agriculture : 11.619,32 Km2

    - Mixed Garden : 613,36 Km2

    - Plantation : 1.518,39 Km2

    - Forest : 12.251,24 Km2

    - Savannah/Neglected Land : 236,82 Km2

    - Swamp/Lake/Rumen : 88,75 Km2

    - Fishpond/Pond : 705,82 Km2

    - Infertile Land/Damage/Coarse Grass : 1.323,53 Km2

    - Others : 798,14 Km2

    - Ocean Area : 110.000,00 Km2
  • Number Of Island And Small Island : 74 Islands
  • Province of East Java is located on 11054 EL to 11557 EL, 5371 SL to 848 SL Toward the north borders on Java sea, toward the east borders on Bali sea and Bali straits, toward the west borders on Middle Java Province and toward the south borders on Hindia Ocean. Based on physical characteristics generally, East Java divided into 4 (four) characteristic territories, namely :
    - Territory I covered middle upland that is fertile territory and develop.
    - Territory II covered northern lowland that is territory with average fertility and average development level.
    - Territory III covered southern lime mountain that is infertile territory and not really develop yet.
    - Territory IV is archipelago territory which is difficult in contacting with and not develop yet.
  • Government Administration
    Administratively East Java Province consist of :
    - Governor Assistant

    - Regency

    - Municipality

    - Administrative Town

    - Regent Assistant

    - Mayor Assistant

    - Sub Regency

    - Sub Regency Representative

    - Political District

    - Village

Furthermore Regional Government of East Java and Regional Level II equipped with Regional Officials as executor element in regional autonomy of territorial secretary as staff element / head assistant, secretary of assembly at regional level as staff element /chef of assembly at regional level assistant. Set of equipment of East Java Province Government is equipped with vertical instances as deconcentration agency that is department territory office and directorate general territory office, etc.

  • Physical Geography
  • Topography
    Based on characteristic of high of place over sea surface, East Java divided into 3 (three) territories :
    • 0-500 m (over sea surface), including 83% of East Java territorial land area and the morphology is relatively flat.
    • 500-1.000 m (over sea surface), including about 11% of East Java territorial land area with hilly and mountainous morphology.
    • 1.000 m (over sea surface), including about 6% of East Java territorial land area with steep morphology.
  • GeologyGeological structure of East Java is dominated by Alluvium and the shape from volcano young crater, both of them are including 44,5% of territorial land, but the rocks with relatively wide in spreading is miosen is about 12,33% and from volcano old crater is about 9,78% of territorial land area totally. Meanwhile, another rocks have only proportion between 0-7%.

    Alluvium sedimentary rock spread along Brantas river and Bengawan Solo river which is known as fertile area. The rocks that is shaped by young crater volcano spread all over the middle part of East Java stretched out to the east direction which is relatively fertile area.
    Miosen rocks spread all over toward the south and north of East Java and stretched out to the east which is infertile area. In Madura island, the rocks is very dominant and the eminent is limestone.

    Soil Ability
    Soil ability means that ability in supporting for certain usage, which be based on drainage, sloping land, land depth, rock coverage and erosion.
    Valuation criteria of soil ability factors are :

    1. Explanation

    • Slope 0-15% possibility of agriculture activity usage and settlement, including about 64% of East Java area.
    • Slope 16-40% possibility of agriculture activity usage of yearly hard plant
    • Including 18% of East Java area
    • Over 40% is area that should be forest as supporting are, water and ecosystem balancing support.

      2. Drainage
    • Good drainage area, including 95% of total East Java area.
    • Bad drainage area (sometimes stagnating) including 22,5% of total East Java area.
    • Worst drainage area, including about 1,48% of total East Java area.

      3. Rock Coverage
    • Rocky included 5,33% of total East Java area.
    • Not rocky included 94,67% of total East Java area.

* Erosion

    • Light erosion (piling up between 0-10%) including 23,12% of total east java area.
    • Heavy erosion (piling up between 50-75%) including 0,37% of total east java area.
    • No erosion including 76,51% of total east java area.

1. Climate
Based on classification of Schmidt and Ferguson system, part of big area (52%) of east java has climate type D. Maximum situation of average maximum temperature reach 33C, but average minimum temperature reach 22C. Rainfall situation per year in east java has the following characteristics :

  • <1.750 mm ; include 35,54%
  • 1.750-2.000 mm ; include 44,00%
  • >2.000 mm ; include 20,46%

And on the height over ± 500 has important hydrological function and need to be preserving of soil and water.

2. Hydrology
Most of east java area are passed by the river, 2 big rivers are Brantas river with 317 Km long and Bengawan Solo river with 540 Km long. The existence of them, in addition to water and mean of transportation among area, they area used for dam, electric power station, fishery and tourism. Besides the rivers, hydrological situation of east java is determined by neither swamps nor lake, dam, rumen, spring and artesian well.

3. Region System

4. Settlement region
The form of settlement region in east java is big town, middle town, small town and rural settlement, usually there is main area that relative bigger and more urban and dispersed area, neither sub urban area nor in the middle of agriculture area. Settlement geographical dispersion is influenced by economic value of location against facilities, neither road nor another liaison facilities.

5. Rice and Dry Field Area
Dispersed system of rice and dry field area tends to follow the system of existing river channel area. Dry Field is the characteristic of upland area, so the problem is not because of irrigation construction and dry field area gives an important contribution of availability agriculture needs besides rice

6. Plantation Area
Determining of plantation area system is rather difficult, because there are 2 (two) matters :

  • Species of plant is seasonal plant and yearly plant, wide of seasonal plant is indefinitely, it depends on market system.
  • Not all plantation area are plantation area that proceeded specially included plantation plant in the garden.

7. Forest Area
According to forest system area in east java, there are various, in between they are for nature preserve, national park, aspirant national park, protected forest, reforestation, intercropping, and prodoksi forest. But prodoksi forest in east java is one of the export commodity outside oil and natural gas that should be increased, without ignoring the forest function to preserve soil, water, and still keeping the fertility.

8. Fishery Area
East Java has land fishery potential: fish pond, pond, fish pond field, planted keramba rice and general waters. East Java sea fishery area is potential trap area.

9. Animal Husbandry Area
East Java is a livestock area, it is 40% of all Indonesian livestock. Besides beef cattle area, east java is a livestock resources for all of Indonesian territory. The staple crop is meats, eggs and milk, but animal husbandry products that be exported are leathers, bones, and duck feather.

10. Another Area
The Area includes mining area, that area is special for mineral following the spread system of main rocks. Rivers area is a sands digging area as well such as : Lesti river, Brantas river, etc. The special areas that are used for energy plant purpose are Sutami Lake, Paiton, Sengguruh, etc. They are small area, but the impact of them need to be considered.

11. Population And Social

12. Number of growth and population density
The number of east java population on 1989 was 29.188.852 people, but on 1990 had been increased became 32,48 million people. According to SUSENAS note on 1994 and Central Bureau of Statistics data, number of inhabitant of east java on 1994 was 33.423.234 people with the density level average was 689 people / km2.

13. Labour Force
Looked at the big population, east java has potential of man power availability and it will be supported development programs.

14. Economy and Business Field Sectors

15. General situation of economy
Nationally east java was being unlimited food supplier, so agriculture activities was the most determined business field in east java economy structure. Another potential business field sectors are trading, hotel, restaurant, processing industry. Contribution structure of business field shows that economy of east java has been in steady development, that is the development of industry and service which is supported by agriculture integrity. Economy ability of east java like has been mentioned above give the implication that potential development and twinning that could be spurred to be more rapid in the future.

16. Agriculture Filed
Agriculture field in the economical structure of east java still holds the important role, it can be seen from the contribution against regional domestic gross of east java.
Besides its role against regional economical structure, folks sub sector agriculture is able to play the role against national food stock.
In the next year east java still be determined to increase food product in the frame work of preservation of food self-supporting as we have done along this time.

17. Trade and co-operation field
Export value of east java trading result year by year more increase, it proves that development climate of tading field in east java is better. It is showed with the supporting and penetrations in potential market for exporting oil and natural gas and non oil and natural gas besides maintaining and increasing volume and export value. East java co-operation try to be co-operative province through national movement of co-operation awareness and creating economic democracy in the rural.

18. Mining and energy
From mining potential in east java is hoped that income from mining sector could be more increased. In the frame work of lay out, the spread of mining stuff location need to be paid attention in the effort of safety to keep the environment preservation. In the mean time the development of energy especially electricity in east java shows high increasing. It can be proved with the increasing of village that can be reached by rural electricity program. East java gas company has also produced gas energy, besides electricity, however is still better because the possibilities of developing the earth gas in Gresik and Madura. Around the increasing of energy development gives hoping that activity development until outlying rural could be raced the increasing in the frame work of developing east java area entirely.

19. Tourism
Actually, tourism in east java is service of natural resources usage and environment that has the specific such as: culture, historical remains, natural scenery, etc. Tourist attractions potential in east java include :

      • Beach tour
      • Mountain tour
      • Cave tour
      • Lake, dam tour
      • Cultural museum, temple, grave, fortress, traditional art tour, etc.

    Development potential of tourism in east java could be discovered and be increased to the maximal usage.

20. Transportation System

21. Transportation system area entirely
Transportation system in east java consist of high way transportation, rail way, ferry, and air way. Mean of high way transportation entirely has been reached almost east java until to the villages.

22. Hi way transportation system
Look at the traffic volume and kinds of vehicle, regional main road in east java are :

    • Space between street of Surabaya - Madiun - Ngawi
    • Surabaya - Mojokerto - Madiun - Ngawi
    • Surabaya - Probolinggo - Banyuwangi
    • Probolinggo - Jember - Banyuwangi
    • Malang - Blitar - Kediri
    • Surabaya - Babat - Tuban
    • Kamal - Tuban - Pamekasan - Sumenep - Station - Main Station that connected with regional transportation movement are in every town neither middle one nor big one. Meanwhile the most transportation vehicle among areas are buses, trucks and trailer.

22. Railway transportation system
Basically, railway connection in east java has been reached most of its territories, nevertheless the rail way connection that has been operated only part of them, because of worthiness and railway maintaining program that was not be operated will be hard because to many build of settlement that pointed to the limit of railway border.
Development orientation of long term mean railway will be pointed to make efficiency of existence infrastructure by adding new infrastructure with better technology and the role of railway affairs in east java entirely can be developed.

23. Airway transportation system
Infrastructure of airway transportation in east java was not purposed only for regional intra activity service but also among national and international. It can be proved with the existence of Juanda airport which is the main airport in east java. Malang airport is for military purpose and be planned the increasing as public airport. Madiun airport is also for military purpose and Trunojoyo airport in Sumenep is for pioneer airport.

24. Sea transportation system
Nationally sea transportation system placed Tanjung Perak harbour as one of the four main harbour in Indonesia. The effort that has been done along this time was only increasing efficiency and effectiveness of sea transportation service, so it can be supported the smooth of transportation and increasing the trade among islands and export / import as well.
East java also has the supporting harbour. They are Meneng, Gresik, Prpobolinggo, Panarukan, Kalianget, Pasuruan, Lamongan, and Tuban.

25. Communication system
The progress of communication technology in east javahas been applied and almost reached all of the province area. Telex, Facsimile have spread among big towns and some middle towns in east java. Telephone infrastructure has been easy to reach even in political district and village.

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