Java is a part of Republic of Indonesia has government which is based
on No.5/1975 regulation stated of regional government principals.
Based on that regulation, this regional has autonomy. It means that
East Java is law community unit which has territory and has the right,
authority and obligatory to arrange and to care household itself in
unitary state of Indonesia in accordance with prevailing regulation.
In connection with the matter and before explaining in detail, East
Java can be explained generally as follows:
The territorial scope of East Java is 157.992 Km2 which consist of:
Regional Government of East Java and Regional Level II equipped with
Regional Officials as executor element in regional autonomy of territorial
secretary as staff element / head assistant, secretary of assembly at
regional level as staff element /chef of assembly at regional level
assistant. Set of equipment of East Java Province Government is equipped
with vertical instances as deconcentration agency that is department
territory office and directorate general territory office, etc.
Based on characteristic of high of place over sea surface, East Java
divided into 3 (three) territories :
0-500 m (over sea surface), including 83% of East Java territorial
land area and the morphology is relatively flat.
m (over sea surface), including about 11% of East Java territorial
land area with hilly and mountainous morphology.
m (over sea surface), including about 6% of East Java territorial
land area with steep morphology.
structure of East Java is dominated by Alluvium and the shape from
volcano young crater, both of them are including 44,5% of territorial
land, but the rocks with relatively wide in spreading is miosen is
about 12,33% and from volcano old crater is about 9,78% of territorial
land area totally. Meanwhile, another rocks have only proportion between
Alluvium sedimentary rock spread along Brantas river and Bengawan
Solo river which is known as fertile area. The rocks that is shaped
by young crater volcano spread all over the middle part of East Java
stretched out to the east direction which is relatively fertile area.
Miosen rocks spread all over toward the south and north of East Java
and stretched out to the east which is infertile area. In Madura island,
the rocks is very dominant and the eminent is limestone.
ability means that ability in supporting for certain usage, which
be based on drainage, sloping land, land depth, rock coverage and
Valuation criteria of soil ability factors are :
0-15% possibility of agriculture activity usage and settlement,
including about 64% of East Java area.
16-40% possibility of agriculture activity usage of yearly hard
18% of East Java area
40% is area that should be forest as supporting are, water and
ecosystem balancing support.
drainage area, including 95% of total East Java area.
drainage area (sometimes stagnating) including 22,5% of total
East Java area.
drainage area, including about 1,48% of total East Java area.
3. Rock Coverage
included 5,33% of total East Java area.
rocky included 94,67% of total East Java area.
erosion (piling up between 0-10%) including 23,12% of total east
erosion (piling up between 50-75%) including 0,37% of total east
erosion including 76,51% of total east java area.
Based on classification of Schmidt and Ferguson system, part of big
area (52%) of east java has climate type D. Maximum situation of average
maximum temperature reach 33C, but average minimum temperature reach
22C. Rainfall situation per year in east java has the following characteristics
mm ; include 35,54%
mm ; include 44,00%
mm ; include 20,46%
on the height over ± 500 has important hydrological function
and need to be preserving of soil and water.
Most of east java area are passed by the river, 2 big rivers are Brantas
river with 317 Km long and Bengawan Solo river with 540 Km long. The
existence of them, in addition to water and mean of transportation among
area, they area used for dam, electric power station, fishery and tourism.
Besides the rivers, hydrological situation of east java is determined
by neither swamps nor lake, dam, rumen, spring and artesian well.
The form of settlement region in east java is big town, middle town,
small town and rural settlement, usually there is main area that relative
bigger and more urban and dispersed area, neither sub urban area nor
in the middle of agriculture area. Settlement geographical dispersion
is influenced by economic value of location against facilities, neither
road nor another liaison facilities.
Rice and Dry Field Area
Dispersed system of rice and dry field area tends to follow the system
of existing river channel area. Dry Field is the characteristic of upland
area, so the problem is not because of irrigation construction and dry
field area gives an important contribution of availability agriculture
needs besides rice
Determining of plantation area system is rather difficult, because there
are 2 (two) matters :
of plant is seasonal plant and yearly plant, wide of seasonal plant
is indefinitely, it depends on market system.
all plantation area are plantation area that proceeded specially included
plantation plant in the garden.
According to forest system area in east java, there are various, in
between they are for nature preserve, national park, aspirant national
park, protected forest, reforestation, intercropping, and prodoksi forest.
But prodoksi forest in east java is one of the export commodity outside
oil and natural gas that should be increased, without ignoring the forest
function to preserve soil, water, and still keeping the fertility.
East Java has land fishery potential: fish pond, pond, fish pond field,
planted keramba rice and general waters. East Java sea fishery area
is potential trap area.
Animal Husbandry Area
East Java is a livestock area, it is 40% of all Indonesian livestock.
Besides beef cattle area, east java is a livestock resources for all
of Indonesian territory. The staple crop is meats, eggs and milk, but
animal husbandry products that be exported are leathers, bones, and
The Area includes mining area, that area is special for mineral following
the spread system of main rocks. Rivers area is a sands digging area
as well such as : Lesti river, Brantas river, etc. The special areas
that are used for energy plant purpose are Sutami Lake, Paiton, Sengguruh,
etc. They are small area, but the impact of them need to be considered.
Population And Social
of growth and population density
The number of east java population on 1989 was 29.188.852 people, but
on 1990 had been increased became 32,48 million people. According to
SUSENAS note on 1994 and Central Bureau of Statistics data, number of
inhabitant of east java on 1994 was 33.423.234 people with the density
level average was 689 people / km2.
Looked at the big population, east java has potential of man power availability
and it will be supported development programs.
Economy and Business Field Sectors
situation of economy
Nationally east java was being unlimited food supplier, so agriculture
activities was the most determined business field in east java economy
structure. Another potential business field sectors are trading, hotel,
restaurant, processing industry. Contribution structure of business
field shows that economy of east java has been in steady development,
that is the development of industry and service which is supported by
agriculture integrity. Economy ability of east java like has been mentioned
above give the implication that potential development and twinning that
could be spurred to be more rapid in the future.
Agriculture field in the economical structure of east java still holds
the important role, it can be seen from the contribution against regional
domestic gross of east java.
Besides its role against regional economical structure, folks sub sector
agriculture is able to play the role against national food stock.
In the next year east java still be determined to increase food product
in the frame work of preservation of food self-supporting as we have
done along this time.
Trade and co-operation field
Export value of east java trading result year by year more increase,
it proves that development climate of tading field in east java is better.
It is showed with the supporting and penetrations in potential market
for exporting oil and natural gas and non oil and natural gas besides
maintaining and increasing volume and export value. East java co-operation
try to be co-operative province through national movement of co-operation
awareness and creating economic democracy in the rural.
Mining and energy
From mining potential in east java is hoped that income from mining
sector could be more increased. In the frame work of lay out, the spread
of mining stuff location need to be paid attention in the effort of
safety to keep the environment preservation. In the mean time the development
of energy especially electricity in east java shows high increasing.
It can be proved with the increasing of village that can be reached
by rural electricity program. East java gas company has also produced
gas energy, besides electricity, however is still better because the
possibilities of developing the earth gas in Gresik and Madura. Around
the increasing of energy development gives hoping that activity development
until outlying rural could be raced the increasing in the frame work
of developing east java area entirely.
Actually, tourism in east java is service of natural resources usage
and environment that has the specific such as: culture, historical remains,
natural scenery, etc. Tourist attractions potential in east java include
museum, temple, grave, fortress, traditional art tour, etc.
potential of tourism in east java could be discovered and be increased
to the maximal usage.
Transportation system area entirely
Transportation system in east java consist of high way transportation,
rail way, ferry, and air way. Mean of high way transportation
entirely has been reached almost east java until to the villages.
Hi way transportation system
Look at the traffic volume and kinds of vehicle, regional main
road in east java are :
between street of Surabaya - Madiun
- Mojokerto - Madiun - Ngawi
- Probolinggo - Banyuwangi
- Jember - Banyuwangi
- Babat - Tuban
- Tuban - Pamekasan - Sumenep - Station - Main Station that connected
with regional transportation movement are in every town neither
middle one nor big one. Meanwhile the most transportation vehicle
among areas are buses, trucks and trailer.
Railway transportation system
Basically, railway connection in east java has been reached most
of its territories, nevertheless the rail way connection that
has been operated only part of them, because of worthiness and
railway maintaining program that was not be operated will be hard
because to many build of settlement that pointed to the limit
of railway border.
Development orientation of long term mean railway will be pointed
to make efficiency of existence infrastructure by adding new infrastructure
with better technology and the role of railway affairs in east
java entirely can be developed.
Airway transportation system
Infrastructure of airway transportation in east java was not purposed
only for regional intra activity service but also among national
and international. It can be proved with the existence of Juanda
airport which is the main airport in east java. Malang airport
is for military purpose and be planned the increasing as public
airport. Madiun airport is also for military purpose and Trunojoyo
airport in Sumenep is for pioneer airport.
Nationally sea transportation system placed Tanjung Perak harbour
as one of the four main harbour in Indonesia. The effort that
has been done along this time was only increasing efficiency and
effectiveness of sea transportation service, so it can be supported
the smooth of transportation and increasing the trade among islands
and export / import as well.
East java also has the supporting harbour. They are Meneng, Gresik,
Prpobolinggo, Panarukan, Kalianget, Pasuruan, Lamongan, and Tuban.
The progress of communication technology in east javahas been
applied and almost reached all of the province area. Telex, Facsimile
have spread among big towns and some middle towns in east java.
Telephone infrastructure has been easy to reach even in political
district and village.