East Java is one of the Republic of Indonesia's 27 provinces, occupying an area of some 48,000 km2 just south of the equator. Including the island of Madura, it accounts for a little more than a third of Java's total land surface and supports a population of almost 33,000,000 inhabitants. To the east, across a narrow strait, lies the island of Bali; to the west are the provinces of Central Java and the Special Region of Yogyakarta. The northern and southern coasts are markedly different. Silt deposited by the rivers which empty into the calm and shallow Java Sea has caused the north coast to grow slowly outwards over the centuries, while in the south the Sunda Shelf, upon which the Indonesian archipelago rests, drops steeply into the depths of the Indian Ocean a few kilometres offshore, creating turbulent currents and dramatic surf.
Anyone who opens a physical map of Java will notice immediately the high, mountainous ridge extending along the entire length of the centre of the island. Some of the highest and most active of these volcanic peaks are to be found in East Java, whose flat, fertile plains are punctuated by no less than six separate ranges, becoming progressively higher towards the east. These mountains are among East Java's principal attractions for climbers and sightseers alike. Some of the more outstanding include the 3,676m active cone of Mt Semeru, Java's highest peak; the famous sand sea and steaming crater of Mt Bromo; the sulphureous summit of Mt Welirang and the strangely beautiful crater lakes of Ijen and Kelud.
The Ayam Bekisar, is East Java Mascot
The office of the Goverment of East Java in Surabaya

From the mountains, numerous rivers flow down through the coastal plains to the sea. Two main waterways, the Brantas and Bengawan Solo, are lifelines for much of East Java's predominantly agricultural community. The former rises in the highlands to the northwest of Malang and follows a circuitous path for 314 km, passing through Blitar, Tulungagung, Kediri and Mojokerto before dividing into a number of smaller streams and meeting the sea in the Surabaya region.
The famous Bengawan Solo, longest river in Java, has its source in the centre of the island to the west of Mt Lawu and stretches 540 km to join the coast at Gresik. Other important rivers include the Madiun, Konto, Sampeyan and Grindulu.
Like the landscape, East Java's climate is varied, depending upon altitude. The plains and lower hill regions are hot and humid, making conditions ideal for wet rice cultivation (sawah). Further up in the hills the air becomes quite cool, while in high mountainous areas at night the temperature can drop to near zero.
Hill regions are well suited for the cultivation of a large variety of fruits and vegetables, which thrive in the colder climate. Principal crops, aside from rice, include corn, tobacco, sugar cane, coffee, rubber, kapok, cloves, tea, cocoa, peanuts, soybeans and cotton. In addition, there are extensive plantations of teak and pine trees. East Java has a marked wet and dry sea son, with rain occurring between October and April. The wettest months are December, January and February.

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